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India Naxalites 印度毛派共產黨:暴力的威脅

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〈印度毛派以暴力行動著稱。圖片來源

梁曉昀、李書頤、Maria Ligios / 合著

印度共產黨毛派,一直是印度境內的暴力威脅來源,印度總理莫迪(Narendra Modi)自2014年上任後也對如何解決納薩爾毛派游擊隊(Naxalites)問題提出許多想法,然而毛派依然動作頻頻,光2016年就有數十人因毛派的恐怖恐擊而喪生。本文採中英文同步刊登。


印度總理莫迪(Narendra Modi)自2014年上任以來,對於如何改進國內治安提出許多改革與想法,特別是困擾已久的納薩爾毛派游擊隊(Naxalites,毛派為印度共產黨)問題。在他上任前,曾經針對毛派做出這樣的宣示:「毛思想讓地球變成血紅色。但時代已變,毛派必須接受民主的力量,才是最佳解決方案。炸彈和槍支只會導致流血,而不會創造新生命;我們必須灑下汗水,不是鮮血;我們必須讓大地變綠,不是轉紅;我們的手要拿筆,而不是拿炸彈和槍支,除此之外,也要參與民主。毛思想無法給予我們任何前景。」[1] 他更對2014年的國會選舉中,不畏毛派威脅而執意投票的民眾致意。

然而,自上任以來,在印度境內仍發生多起納薩爾毛派的恐怖攻擊事件,光是2016年前三個月的攻擊事件多達數件(如表一所示),即便內政部早就依據1967年的「防範非法活動法」(Unlawful Activities Prevention Act)將「人民戰爭集團」與「毛主義行動中心」等毛派團體列為非法恐怖組織,不過經歷數十年,這些團體不僅沒有消失,其影響力還擴張到全國三分之一的領土範圍。納薩爾毛派宣稱其目的是要建立一個從尼泊爾一直延伸至安德拉邦的「紅色走廊」(Red Corridor)解放區,並以武力推翻政府;印度總理莫迪則回應該恐怖攻擊行動表示是野蠻且極不人道的,應予以強烈譴責。

日期

衝突 死傷人數

地點

2016/01/08 Naxalites襲警 2人死亡 The jungles of Koraput district of Odisha.[2]
2016/01/27 Naxalite襲警 7人死亡/ 6人受傷 Jharkhand, Palamu [3]
2016/03/01 警方擊斃Naxalite 8 Naxalite死亡 Chhattisgarh & southern state of Telangana
2016/03/02 Naxalite殺害平民 16人死亡 Chhattisgarh village of Narayanpur[4]
2016/03/04 Naxalite 攻擊軍隊 2軍人死亡/14人傷 Chhattisgarh
2016/03/22 Naxals 殺平民,因線民 2人死亡 Chhattisgarh; Sukma
2016/03/30 Naxalite地雷攻擊警察部隊 7人死亡 Chhattisgarh[5]
2016/04/07 Naxalite殺害平民 1人死亡 Chhattisgarh[6]

表(一):Naxalite 2016年攻擊事件表,作者自繪(截至2016年4月8日)

pm-modi-file-pic-650_650x400_41431141365
〈莫迪訪問恰蒂斯加爾邦,針對毛派問題發表演講。圖片來源

莫迪認為對抗毛派的威脅必須從各方面做起,因此他在2015年拜訪受納薩爾毛派攻擊最嚴重的邦-恰蒂斯加爾邦(Chhattisgarh),並且投入24000億盧比作為基礎建設所需,強調透過強化該地區的社會經濟發展,改變該地區的原貌,畢竟人們的願望就是有個工作並有穩定的收入和安穩的生活, 其他相關的配套措施還包含深耕教育與地方建設等,他更表示暴力是沒有未來的,為此承諾將改變這叛亂的溫床[7]

印度當局的政策不僅從社會層面改變該問題,在政府維安方面今年度也有些變革,新財政年度預算案中分配給內政部維安預算增加25%,分配給國防和三軍的預算變少,大多是因為年初時,先後發生巴坦科空軍基地和駐阿富汗的領事館恐攻事件,加上恐怖分子意圖在新德里發動炸彈攻擊與暗殺印度總理莫迪的消息不斷,因此印度今年4月至明年3月的財政年度預算案增加內部安全經費,將武裝力量用於對抗毛派和恐怖組織對抗的中央後備警察部隊,守衛印度與巴基斯坦、孟加拉邊境邊境安全部隊,印藏邊界警察部隊及保衛機場安全的中央工業安全部隊等[8]。透過政治上人員編制及維安預算的增加,社會上解決根本問題著手,可以看見莫迪政府對解決印度內部最大的叛亂團體有絕對的投入,後續成效如何值得關注。

 

The Naxalites were born in the late 60’s inspired by the Long March. Twenty years ago the Naxalbari movement seemed to be finished, but globalization, the increase in the social gap and the forced expropriation of peasants’ land has revitalized it. The “red corridor” now covers at least a fifth, if not a quarter, of the Indian territory. It begins in Bihar, which borders Nepal, goes down to the Jarkhaland, West Bengal, Chhattisgarh course, then Orissa, Andhra Pradesh and finally, to the west, up to Karnataka. The Indian newspaper has called it “corridor” for its vertical shape, from the northeast to the southwest.  “Red,” of course, because of the Maoists that live in this area.

While Modi keeps promoting democracy as the only solution for the Naxalite problem, Naxalite attacks are still on everyday’s agenda. “Maoism has turned this earth red with blood. It is the call of the time, Maoists must accept the power of democracy. Bombs, guns and pistols can cause bloodshed but cannot give a new life. We have to shed sweat, not blood. We have to make this earth green, not red. We have to hold pen, instead of bomb, guns and pistols, and participate in the democratic process. Maoism is not going to lead us anywhere,” [9]Modi said.
Recently, Modi invested 2,4 billion rupees in the region of Chhattisgarh and promised India that insurgency would not last for long in the region. Moreover, by stating that extremism has ended in Punjab and Maoism has been buried in Naxalbari, Modi supports the idea that it is only a matter of time for violence to end in the region of Chhattisgarh.

Currently, Modi is insisting on solving India’s biggest internal rebel group problem by increasing political staffing and budget: this year some changes in terms of government and interior budget have occurred. The budget of the Interior Ministry for the new fiscal annual budget amounts to 25% for the national defense. On the other hand, the budget of the armed forces has been reduced. Therefore, the increase of the central annual budget from April to March of next year will be used against the Maoists. The armed forces of the Central Police, however, will be used against terrorist organizations and as guards on the border with Pakistan, Bangladesh and Tibet.

 

 

[1] “In Naxal hub, Modi appeals: ‘Make earth green not red’” Indian Express, 03/29/2014, http://indianexpress.com/article/india/politics/in-naxal-hub-modi-appeals-make-earth-green-not-red/

[2] BSF officer, jawan killed in Naxalite IED blast attack/2016/01/08
http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/Odisha-BSF-officer-jawan-killed-in-Naxalite-IED-blast-attack/articleshow/50499019.cms

[3] Jharkhand Naxal attack: 5 policemen, 2 civilian killed in IED blast in Palamu/2016/01/27
http://www.india.com/news/india/jharkhand-naxal-attack-5-policemen-2-civilian-killed-in-ied-blast-in-palamu-897321/

[4] Naxal attack in Chhattisgarh: 16 villagers killed; Raman Singh-government vows retaliation/2016/03/02
http://www.india.com/news/india/naxal-attack-in-chhattisgarh-16-villagers-killed-raman-singh-government-vows-retaliation-1000628/

[5] CRPF suspects information on troop movement was leaked/2016/03/30

http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/CRPF-suspects-information-on-troop-movement-was-leaked/articleshow/51637083.cms

[6] Naxalites kill villager in Chhattisgarh/2016/04/07
http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/raipur/Naxalites-kill-villager-in-Chhattisgarh/articleshow/51722652.cms

[7] PM visits Maoist-affected areas of Chhattisgarh; MoUs worth Rs 24,000cr signed,2015/05/09

http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/PM-visits-Maoist-affected-areas-of-Chhattisgarh-MoUs-worth-Rs-24000cr-signed/articleshow/47212980.cms

[8] 因應反恐 印度增加維安預算,2016年03月01日中央社。
http://www.chinatimes.com/realtimenews/20160301004012-260408

[9] In Naxal hub, Modi appeals: ‘Make earth green not red’,2014/03/29 http://indianexpress.com/article/india/politics/in-naxal-hub-modi-appeals-make-earth-green-not-red/

 

 

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