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【尼泊爾地震-2】Nepal Quake 尼泊爾震後百態與救援建議

 

Dr. Swarnim Wagle(文)/ 李賜賢(譯)

尼泊爾國家計劃委員會委員Swarnim Wagle博士29日在臉書上報導震後與救災百態,訊息即時而寶貴,包括目前政府部門、非政府部門、一般人民與民意代表在災後的行動與反應,以及外國救援或慈善組織參與救災的參考建議。本網站已徵求作者同意,將內容翻譯後以中英對照方式刊出。

 


 

作者介紹:Swarnim Wagle博士,前世界銀行資深經濟學家,現任尼泊爾國家計劃委員會委員(Member of National Planning Commission, Nepal)

 


The Great Gorkha Quake: A Grumpy Update

一段懇切持平的FB貼文-尼泊爾大震記實

BY SawrnimSawrnim1. There are three major phases of response to the ongoing disaster in Nepal: rescue, relief, and reconstruction. With the ferocity of the aftershocks receding, there is a gradual (not complete) shift from rescue to relief. Rescue has been directly led by Nepal Army (with the help of other security agencies). More than a dozen helicopters are in the air ferrying the wounded to Kathmandu and Pokhara. As of yesterday evening, about 100 injured folks were airlifted, compared to about 600 over two days prior. Some pilots have had to return without landing at a few locations because of poor weather as well as higher safety guidelines (esp. for Indian pilots). By April 28, 2015, the threshold of 5000 deaths and 10,000 injuries will likely have crossed.

面對尼泊爾的賑災,主要有三個階段:救援、救濟和重建。隨著強烈的餘震趨緩,所有的應變行動逐步(但非全面)從救援傷患轉向救濟災民。救援行動一直是由尼泊爾軍隊主導(再加上其它保安單位的配合)。十幾架直升機忙著將傷者送往加德滿都與波卡拉城(Pokhara),截至昨天傍晚,大約空運了百名傷患。前兩天則運送了六百多名傷患。在一些地點,由於天氣惡劣以及飛行員有較高的安全考量(特別是印度籍飛行員),直昇機未落地便直接折返。直至2015年4月28日止,傷亡人數將可能突破5,000人死亡和10,000人受傷的大關。

2. We at the National Planning Commission (NPC) have begun looking into medium to long-term needs for reconstruction. We scanned the architectural and residential losses in the Valley and will be departing to the districts soon. We resolve to rebuild better. To get some organized volunteering going, NPC’s National Development Volunteer Service (NDVS) has partnered with the Himalayan Climate Initiative, a civil society group to create an organized platform for thousands of young citizens seeking to contribute. All other volunteering groups are also encouraged to join hands in an organized manner: http://himalayanclimate.org/TheGenNep

我們國家計劃委員會(NPC)已開始著手規劃中長期的重建所需。我們詳細檢視過一些在山谷中損失的建築和住宅,也會盡快到各地去巡視。我們決定要重建得更好。為了啟動一些有組織的志願團體,國家計劃委員會中的國家發展志願者服務組織(NDVS)與另一民間組織:喜瑪拉雅氣候倡議組織,共同為成千上萬有意願提供服務的青年公民成立一個平台http://himalayanclimate.org/TheGenNep,邀集其他志願團體以有組織的方式攜手合作。

3. Even on a good day, the services of Nepal Government are hard to appreciate. During a disaster, they are bound to feel inadequate. However, thousands of dedicated personnel on the ground are doing what they can with limited resources. I have seen several cabinet ministers, Secretaries, and notably the Chief Secretary leading from the front, fully devoted to the crisis despite a history of ill preparation on the part of all past governments. Note that even the world’s richest countries have struggled to pacify people during such crises. We all witnessed the botched rescue efforts by the mighty US Government during Hurricane Katrina in 2005, and by the Japanese Government over its handling of the 2011 Fukushima disaster.

尼泊爾政府的服務,即使在無災無難的日子裡也很難得到肯定。在災難來臨時,公部門更顯得捉襟見肘。然而還是有數以千計的人員在有限資源的情況下,盡其所能地救災。我見過幾位內閣部長、次長,特別是政務司長,儘管過去政府的救災紀錄不佳,但是他們現在都在前線領導救災,全力投入拯救這場危機。請注意,即使是世界上最富有的國家,都很難在這樣的災難中安撫民眾。我們都見識了強大的美國政府在2005年卡崔納颶風肆虐後的拙劣救災行動,還有日本政府如何處理他們在2011年的福島核災。

4. But let this record not be used as a cover for incompetence. We must hold officials to account and call out those who are derelict in their duty. Let us, however, be mindful about the enormity of the calamity, and not discourage those who are working tirelessly in good faith with thoughtless tirades and abuse.

但我們不必讓這些記錄成為救災不力的藉口。我們必須讓官員負起責任,並且揪出那些失職的官員。但我們必須正視這場災難的嚴重性,而不是用一些輕率的發言與漫罵去批評所有真誠辛勤工作的人。

5. Many citizens have left the Kathmandu valley out of fear, and to escape hardship. Ironically, this relieves some pressure on public handouts and services. Free vehicles, including school buses, are being arranged to facilitate exit. Thousands of young people are helping spontaneously. But not all, including many who are able-bodied and whose property has not been affected. Instead, many well-off folks seem to be grumbling, in between card games, about not receiving anything from the government.

許多加德滿都市民因為恐懼,想遠離苦難而選擇出走。諷刺的是,這也減輕了政府的壓力。包括校車在內的免費車輛都被安排協助運輸的工作。數以千計的年輕人也都發自內心的挺身而出,互相幫忙。但還是有些身強力壯、財物並未受損的人沒有參與救助同胞的工作,特別是許多富裕的鄉親還能一邊玩紙牌打發時間一邊抱怨沒有從政府那裡得到任何東西。

6. Members of parliament and other people’s representatives should be in their constituencies already, by road or on foot. Ridiculously, many are expecting to be flown on helicopters which has generally been refused. Here is a simple math: one unnecessary traveler by air means 80 kilos of vital relief material off-loaded, or an injured person not flown back. Please do not do anything to strain already stretched resources.

國會議員和其他人民代表理應在他們的選區的路上或正在步行前往。可笑的是,有許多人還想著要搭直升機前往,但直升機早就都拒絕他們了。用一個簡單的數學問題來思考:直昇機搭載一名沒有任何必要功能的乘客,意味著必須卸下80公斤的重要救災物資,或者是有位受傷的人無法搭飛機回來。所以,請不要在資源早已捉襟見肘的情況下,做出任何耗損資源的行為。

7. We have also seen curious situations where rescuers are themselves demanding government rescue. State capacity is spread so thin that NGOs should not count on government husbanding for anything except vital approvals (like flying or driving cargo in). They should self-initiate, self-organize and self-deliver just like the Red Cross and tens of others. Novice NGOs could partner with seasoned ones. For check-book charity, there are multiple channels for online aid transfer. Sometimes good intentions alone are not enough. Please pay attention to some wise advice here:https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2015/apr/27/earthquake-nepal-dont-rush-help-volunteers-aid

我們還看到一些奇怪的情形,像是有些救難人員還要求政府提供救助。政府的力氣已經不太能支應,所以除非事關重大,非政府組織不該事事希望政府指導或批准(如飛機運送或開貨車進入),而是應該自動自發,自行組織行動,就像紅十字會和其他類似的組織。小型、缺乏經驗的非政府組織可以和經驗豐富的組織合作。至於捐款式的慈善單位,網路上有許多管道可以提供轉帳服務,但有時候只有好意是不夠的,捐款前請參考以下連結,先閱讀這些有用的建議:https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2015/apr/27/earthquake-nepal-dont-rush-help-volunteers-aid

 


 

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